Campaign : ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE)

2015.11.23 - 2017.01.05

Lead Scientist : Dan Lubin

For data sets, see below.

Summary

2015-11-23 - 2016-01-17: Self Kontained Instrument Platform at WAIS

2016-01-01 - 2017-01-13: Second ARM Mobile Facility at McMurdo Station

Abstract

West Antarctica is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and this warming is closely connected with global sea level rise. The documented changes on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) have challenged previous explanations of Antarctic climate change that focused on strengthening of circumpolar westerlies in response to the positive polarity trend in the Southern Annular Mode. West Antarctic warming does not yet have a comprehensive explanation. Dynamical mechanisms may vary from one season to the next, and they very likely involve complex teleconnections with subtropical and tropical latitudes.

The prime motivation for the ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) was that there had been no substantial atmospheric science or climatological field work on the WAIS since work that started during the 1957 International Geophysical Year lasted for a few years. A few automatic weather stations provided direct meteorological information on the WAIS for several decades. And yet, satellite imagery and meteorological reanalyses indicate that West Antarctica is highly susceptible to advection of warm and moist maritime air, with related cloud cover, depending on the location and strength of low-pressure cells in the Amundsen, Ross, and Bellingshausen seas. There is a need to quantify the role of these changing air masses on the surface energy balance, including all surface energy components and cloud radiative forcing. More generally, global climate model simulations are known to perform poorly over the Antarctic and Southern oceans, and the marked scarcity of cloud information at southern high latitudes has so far inhibited significant progress.

Beginning in late November 2015, a set of ARM Climate Research Facility equipment, including basic radiometric, surface energy balance, and upper air instrumentation, was deployed to the WAIS to make the first well-calibrated climatological suite of measurements seen in this extremely remote but globally critical region in more than 40 years.

McMurdo Station, where the ARM Facility's most advanced cloud and aerosol instrumentation can be situated, has a meteorological relationship with the WAIS via circulation patterns in the Ross and Amundsen seas. From McMurdo, the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) gathered sophisticated data with cloud radars, high-spectral-resolution lidar, and a complete aerosol suite with relevance to the WAIS as well. AMF2 was deployed at McMurdo Station from January 2016 to January 2017 for a data set that covered 14 months in total from the two locations. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation, which manages the U.S. Antarctic Program, collaborated on AWARE.

Other Contacts

Co-Investigators
David Bromwich
Lynn Russell
Johannes Verlinde
Andrew Vogelmann


Campaign Data Sets

IOP ParticipantData Source DescriptionFinal Data
SpringstonMentor Processed Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) Data Order Data
SpringstonMentor Processed Trace Gas Data Order Data

ARM Mobile Facility Instruments

Data Source DescriptionBrowse DataBrowse Plots
AERI
Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer
 Browse Data Browse Plots
AOS
Aerosol Observing System
 Browse Data
AOSMET
Meteorological Measurements associated with the Aerosol Observing System
 Browse Data Browse Plots
CCN
Cloud Condensation Nuclei Particle Counter
 Browse Data
CEIL
Ceilometer
 Browse Data Browse Plots
CLAP
Continuous Light Absorption Photometer
CPC
Condensation Particle Counter
 Browse Data Browse Plots
CSPHOT
Cimel Sunphotometer
 Browse Data Browse Plots
DL
Doppler Lidar
ECOR
Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System
 Browse Data Browse Plots
GNDRAD
Ground Radiometers on Stand for Upwelling Radiation
 Browse Data Browse Plots
GVRP
G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer Profiler
 Browse Data
HSRL
High Spectral Resolution Lidar
 Browse Data
HTDMA
Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer
 Browse Data
IRT
Infrared Thermometer
 Browse Data Browse Plots
KASACR
Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar
 Browse Data
KAZR
Ka ARM Zenith Radar
 Browse Data
LDIS
Laser Disdrometer
 Browse Data
MET
Surface Meteorological Instrumentation
 Browse Data Browse Plots
MFR
Multifilter Radiometer
 Browse Data Browse Plots
MFRSR
Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer
 Browse Data Browse Plots
MPL
Micropulse Lidar
 Browse Data
MWACR
Marine W-Band (95 GHz) ARM Cloud Radar
 Browse Data
MWR
Microwave Radiometer
 Browse Data Browse Plots
MWR3C
Microwave Radiometer, 3 Channel
MWRHF
Microwave Radiometer - High Frequency
MWRP
Microwave Radiometer Profiler
NEPHELOMETER
Nephelometer
 Browse Data
NFOV
Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer
OZONE
Ozone Monitor
 Browse Data
PSAP
Particle Soot Absorption Photometer
 Browse Data
RWP
Radar Wind Profiler
 Browse Data
SASHE
Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric
SASZE
Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith
SEBS
Surface Energy Balance System
 Browse Data
SKYRAD
Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation
 Browse Data
SONDE
Balloon-Borne Sounding System
 Browse Data
SWS
Shortwave Spectroradiometer
TSI
Total Sky Imager
 Browse Data Browse Plots
WACR
W-Band (95 GHz) ARM Cloud Radar
XSACR
X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar
 Browse Data